Monday, 18 May 2015

Urban Planning Using Space Based Technologies

Urban Planning Using Remote Sensing, GIS & Aerial Photogrammetry Technologies

Planning is a widely accepted way to handle complex problems of resources allocation and decision-making. It involves the use of collective intelligence and foresight to chart direction, order harmony and make progress in public activity relating to human environment and general welfare. In order to provide more effective and meaningful direction for better planning and development necessary support of the organization has become essential. Hence the need for a suitable information system is increasingly being felt in all planning and developmental activities, whether these are for urban or rural areas. The positive aspects of urbanization have often been overshadowed by deterioration in the physical environment and quality of life caused by the widening gaps between supply and demand for essential services and infrastructure.
Urbanization is inevitable, when pressure on land is high, agriculture incomes are low and population increases are excessive, as is the case in most of the developing countries of the world. Urbanization has become not only of the principal manifestation   but also an engine of change, and the 21st century which has become the centre of urban transition for human society. In a way urbanization is desirable for human development. However, uncontrolled urbanization has been responsible for many of the problems, our cities experiences today, resulting in substandard living environment, acute problems of drinking water, noise and air pollution, disposal of waste, traffic congestion etc. To improve these environmental degradations in and around the cities, the technological development in relevant fields have to solved these problems caused by rapid urbanization, only then the fruits of development will reach most of the deprived ones.
The modern technology of remote sensing which includes both aerial as well as satellite based systems, allow us to collect lot of physical data rather easily, with speed and on repetitive basis, and together with GIS helps us to analyze the data spatially, offering possibilities of generating various options (modeling), thereby optimizing the whole planning process. These information systems also offer interpretation of physical (spatial) data with other socio-economic data, and thereby providing an important linkage in the total planning process and making it more effective and meaningful. Recent technological advances made in domain of spatial technology cause considerable impact in planning activities. This domain of planning is of prime importance for a country like India with varied geographic patterns, cultural activities etc. The purpose of using GIS is that, maps provide an added dimension to data analysis which brings us one step closer to visualizing the complex patterns and relationships that characterize real-world planning and policy problems. Visualization of spatial patterns also supports change analysis, which is important in monitoring of social indicators. This in turn should result in improving need assessment.

Urbanization in India:

Urbanization is an index of transformation from traditional rural economy to modern industrial one. It is a progressive concentration of population in urban unit. At the moment, India is one among the country of low level of urbanization. Number of urban agglomeration/town has grown from the year 1827 in the year 1901 to 5161 in the year 2001. During the last fifty years the population of India has grown two-and-a-half times, but urban India has grown nearly five times. In 2001, 306.9 million Indians (30.5%) were living in nearly 3700 towns and cities spread across the country, compared to 62.4 million (17.3%) who lived in urban areas in 1951. This is an increase of about 390% in the last five decades. This process of urbanization in India is shown in Figure 1. It reflects a gradual increasing trend of urbanization. India is at an acceleration stage of the process of urbanization and expected to increase to cover million and 533 million by the years 2011 and 2021 respectively.

Urban planning - Remote sensing & GIS:
In India, the complexity of urban development is so dramatic that it demands immediate attention and perspective physical planning of the cities and towns. The dynamic nature of urban environmental necessitates both macro and micro level analysis. Therefore, it is necessary and fundamental for policy makers to integrate like remote sensing into urban planning and management. Traditional approaches and technique designed for towns and cities may prove to be inadequate tools when dealing with present scenario in the cities. New approaches are required, and new methods must be incorporated into current practice. Until recently, maps and land survey records from the 1960’s and 70’s were used for urban studies, but now the trend has shifted to using digital, multispectral images. The trend towards using remotely sensed data in urban studies began with first-generation satellite sensors such as landsat MSS and WAS given impetus by a number of second generation satellites: Landsat TM, ETM+ and SPOT HRV. The recent advent of a third generation of very high spatial resolution (0.5 meter/pixel) satellite sensors is stimulating. The high resolution PAN and LISS III merged data can be used together effectively for urban applications. Data from IRS P-6 satellites with sensors on board especially LISS IV Mono and Multispectral (MX) with 5.8 meter/pixel spatial resolution is very useful for urban studies.
Advancement in the technology of remote sensing has brought miracle in the availability of the higher and higher resolution satellite imageries. They are IRS-P6 Resourcesat imagery with 5.8 meter resolution in multispectral mode, IRS-1D Pan image with 5.8 meter resolution, Cartosat-I imagery of 2.5 meter resolution with stereo capabilities, Cartosat-II with 1 m, IKONOS imageries of Space Imaging with 4 meter in multispectral mode and 1 meter in panchromatic mode, Quickbird imagery of Digital Globe with 61 cm resolution in panchromatic mode and so on. These high resolutions of the sensors provide a new methodology in the application with newly raised technical restrictions.
Apart from Cartographic applications, high resolution data will be useful in cadastral mapping and updating terrain visualization, generation of a national topographic database, utilities planning and other GIS applications needed for urban areas. The satellite will provide cadastral level information up to a 1:5,000 scale, and will be useful for making 2-5 meter contour map. The output of a remote sensing system is usually an image representing the scene being observed. Many further steps of digital image processing and modeling are required in order to extract useful information from the image. Suitable techniques are to be adopted for a given theme, depending on the requirements of the specific problem. Since remote sensing may not provide all the information needed for a full-fledged assessment, many other spatial attributes from various sources are needed to be integrated with remote sensing data.
This integration of spatial data and their combined analysis is performed through GIS technique. It is a computer assisted system for capture, storage, retrieval, analysis and display of spatial data and non-spatial attribute data. The data can be derived from alternative sources such as survey data, geographical/topographical/aerial maps or archived data. Data can be in the form of locational data (such as latitudes/longitudes) or tabular (attribute) data. GIS techniques are playing an increasing role in facilitating integration of multi-layer spatial information with statistical attribute data to arrive at alternate developmental scenarios.
Application of Remote Sensing technology can lead to innovation in the planning process in various ways;
1. Digitisation of planning basemaps and various layout plan has facilitated updating of basemaps wherever changes have taken place in terms of land development etc. Digital maps provides flexibility as digital maps are scale free. Superimposition of any two digital maps which are on two different scales is feasible. This capability of digital maps facilitates insertion of fresh survey or modified maps into existing basemaps. Similarly superimposition of revenue maps on basemaps with reasonable accuracy is great advantage compared to manually done jobs.
2. Since information and maps are available in digital format, correlating various layers of information about a feature from satellite imagery, planning maps and revenue maps is feasible with the help of image processing software like ERDAS Imagine, ENVI and PCI Geomatica, ILWIS. Such super imposed maps in GIS software like Map info, Geomedia, Arc View, Auto CAD Map and Arc GIS provide valuable information for planning, implementing and management in urban areas.
3. Remote Sensing techniques are extremely useful for change detection analysis and selection of sites for specific facilities, such as hospital, restaurants, solid waste disposal and industry.
An attempt has been made here to demonstrate the potentials of remote sensing techniques in base mapping, land-use and land-cover mapping, urban change detection and mapping, urban infrastructure and utilities mapping, urban population estimation, management.
Aerial photography and satellite data in urban studies:
Aerial photographs have long been employed as a tool in urban analysis (Jensen 1983, and Garry, 1992). In India, city planning has been largely confined to aerial photography. It is being used for generation of base maps and other thematic maps for urban areas as it is proved to be cost and time effective and reliable. Wealth of information pertaining to land features, land use, built up areas, city structure, physical aspects of environment etc. are available from the aerial photography. Various types of cameras and sensors black and white, color, color infrared are used for aerial photography. Because of security concerns related to aerial photography, the use of photogrammetric techniques was confined to smaller cities.
Aerial photographs provide information that can significantly improve the effectiveness of city and town planning and management in India. They are also relatively low in cost, accurate, reliable and can be obtained on desired scale, but they are not useful in large metropolitan areas.
Base maps for urban areas:
Base map, a pre-requisite for urban planners, refers to the large scale maps, which depict broad physical and cultural features. The base maps are produced at a scale ranging from 1:10,000 to 1:4,000 and 1:1,000/1:500 for specific urban applications. Base maps at a scale of 1:4,000 that were prepared by ground survey in 1969 and 1971 are available for some areas. But now base maps are being produced at scales ranging from 1:4,000 to 1:10,000 depending upon the specific urban applications for which they are prepared.
Base maps can be also made from orthophotographs for inaccessible areas that are difficult to survey, high altitude towns like Leh, Puri, Himachal Paradesh etc. In such situations, remote sensing has made information collection possible for base maps where field surveying has fallen shot due to prohibitive faction such as cost, timing and terrain. These base maps can provide the backbone for development of information that was previously unavailable to the community, urban regional, and natural resource planners and management. IRS P-6 (multispectral) data with 2.5 m/pixel spatial resolution can meet the ever-growing demand for current, accurate base maps at a scale of 1:5,000 for urban planning purposes and for development new residential sites.

Data Approach for the Study:
In the view of the consequence and inevitability of the study the incongruity may arise for the suitable data for the study to attain precise and cost effective output. The technical and logical approach with proper effort may give the answer of the quarries related to the data approach. Advancement in the technologies now provided us many options to choose for the best available data approach for the study. There are three basic datasets may be used for the study:
1.    Field Survey through DGPS and Total Station:
2.    Satellite Images , and
3.    Aerial Photographs
1)    Field Survey through DGPS and Total Station:
Surveying is a technology that uses instruments to measure the position relationships between points on land and express shapes, areas and other aspects by figures or drawings. The primary function of surveying instruments is to measure distances, angles and heights. There are two types of surveying instruments used today: the total station and the GPS system. The total station employs the electro-optical distance metering method, emitting laser beams to a target and detecting light reflected off it. It takes measurements by calculating the deviation of the wavelength of the reflected light. With the GPS system, measurements are taken by receiving signals from GPS satellites. Total stations are able to measure distances to an accuracy of 2-3 millimeters per kilometer, and angles to 1-second. Total stations when extremely high accuracy is required, such as in building and bridge construction; GPS systems in applications where errors on the order of millimeters to centimeters are permitted.
The collection of total station and DGPS data requires manual efforts and a lot of time. It could be helpful in the ground verification of the geographical features and point of importance.

2)    Satellite Images:
Satellites capture imagery in digital format, therefore, unlike aerial photography, the imagery can be used as more than a backdrop, although this is still the most common use for the imagery. Most satellite imagery is captured digitally in the visible, near-infrared and mid-infrared range of the spectrum, allowing soil types to be discerned, mineral deposits to be predicted and identified, and vegetation vigour to be assessed amongst others. In addition, because of the altitude at which the satellites are in orbit, the resulting imagery does not suffer from distortions around the edges of each image, and as such, terrain permitting, any distortions resulting from the off-nadir capture angle are consistent across the area. It is due to these features that satellite imagery is often easier to process and produce an accurate product. Added to this, the satellites are in continuous orbit capturing imagery across the globe which makes any portion of the world accessible for imagery capture at consistent time-intervals.
Potentially, high resolution satellite images offer significant cost savings when compared with aerial photography as a result of larger footprints (this characteristic means that less ground control, less processing and less model setting is required for the ortho-rectification process), more frequent revisit times and the potential for automatic feature change detection. The gap between aerial photography and satellite imagery is progressively being bridged. With respect to traditional satellite sensors, the use of the new high-resolution spectral sensors increases both the amount of information attainable on land cover at local scales and the geometric detail and accuracy. This imagery is therefore of substantial interest for mapping of complex urban areas.
Data from high-resolution sensors clearly offer exciting new opportunities for monitoring urban space. Most current photogrammetric methods still rely on the use of aerial photography. Yet new satellite sensors may satisfy some urban data requirements. Consider the present interest in IKONOS data, where US cities are increasingly using single-date panchromatic imagery instead of aerial ortho-photos for updating existing data layers such as roads, houses of their spatial information system.
Though the satellite images are most popular data among the city planners but it has many major drawbacks. These are
  1. The coverage of the area of an image is very high in comparison to the aerial photographs so the ground details are very low.
  2. When the term resolution is used the satellite image in its advance version have maximum resolution is of 0.50m but the aerial photographs have micrometer resolution.
  3. The accuracy level in aerial photo graphs is comparatively higher than the satellite images because the resolution and ground details are high in aerial photographs.
  4. The ortho-photographs are distortion free and have more vericaly corrected view than the satellite image.
  5. The aerial images are haze free and available.
3. Aerial Photographs:
Aerial photographs have long been employed as a tool in urban analysis (Jensen 1983, and Garry, 1992). In India, city planning has been largely confined to aerial photography. It is being used for generation of base maps and other thematic maps for urban areas as it is proved to be cost and time effective and reliable. Wealth of information pertaining to land features, land use, built up areas, city structure, physical aspects of environment etc. are available from the aerial photography. Various types of cameras and sensors black and white, color, color infrared are used for aerial photography. Because of security concerns related to aerial photography, the use of photogrammetric techniques was confined to smaller cities.
Aerial photographs provide information that can significantly improve the effectiveness of city and town planning and management in India. They are also relatively low in cost, accurate, reliable and can be obtained on desired scale, but they are not useful in large metropolitan areas.
Urban hydrology:
The urban agglomerations in India are facing at least four hydrological problems, i.e, the mobilization of sufficient volume of water for domestic and industrial consumption, urban water pollution and quality, flood control and urban storm water run-off disposal.
Indian cities face problems of insufficient water for domestic & industrial purposes, poor water quality & inadequate urban storm water runoff disposal. However, Runoff cannot be directly measured by remote sensing techniques. The role of remote sensing in runoff calculation is generally to provide a source of input data or as an aid for estimating equation coefficient and model parameters. The remote sensing techniques are also being applied in obtaining information pertaining to surface water quality parameters, soil, drainage, land-use, ground water, and slope of catchment or watersheds relevant to carry runoff and water estimation studies. The GIS technology has the ability to capture, store, manipulate, analyze and visualize the geo-referenced data. On the other hand hydrology is inherently spatial and distributed hydrological models have been large data requirements. The integration of GIS and hydrology involves three major components: 1. Spatial data construction, 2. Integration of spatial model layers, 3. GIS and model interface.
Waste water infrastructure planning:
Operation of wastewater management is one of the most expensive utilities for the urban population. Expanding and maintaining a very large and rapidly aging wastewater collection system is a major problem facing many large cities. The rapid growth of population in the major towns of country and an ever increasing pollution load in the rivers called for an attention of the responsible government bodies to look into the matter of assessing the capacity of present sewerage system and to plan the same for future. Populations in the cities are rapidly increasing and are expected to double during the next 30 years. The existing collection and treatment systems must be expanded to reduce pollution to the environment and to improve living conditions in urban centers.
Geographic Information System (GIS) provides logical approach to understand the location significance of the information with its spatial location also referred as “spatial information”. An accurate map and a related list of information linking to the points, lines, polygons and symbols in the map can be considered as the principles of the GIS system.
GIS has been an integral part of the wastewater system planning process. The analysis capabilities of GIS coupled with satellite imagery allowed engineers to develop sewer system master plans more quickly than previous traditional methods. A computerized base-map of the GIS system can provide vital data for the design of sewerage by locating the nodes of connection between buildings to the sewerage pipe network. The population number or the measurement of the floor-space areal size of the buildings provide the flow-rate.GIS base maps and data developed during the project provide a foundation for the development of future planning and management tools such as hydraulic modeling, infrastructure mapping, maintenance management, and integration with GPS and field survey data.
Effective traffic management:
The transportation network is an important infrastructure element of the whole urban area. It allows connectivity and movement of people, traffic and goods both within and between urban centres. RS data can be used effectively for urban transportation network management. All roads with a width of 3m or more can be seen on high resolution (IKONOS) satellite data; such data facilitate the identification of roads that need to be widened to ease congestion. Using satellite images, road information can be updated and the approximate width of a road can be determined.
Solid and hazardous waste: 
Solid waste is a potential nightmare for India’s large and growing population, due to inadequate and legislative instruments and to the deplorable organisational and financial capabilities of local urban governments. The informal sector should be organised and the private sector should participate more widely in collection and recycling of solid waste.
In this context, the most acceptable strategy for solid waste management is first to categorize waste streams as biodegradable, non degradable and recyclables. Then the problem is where to dispose of it and it is not easy to locate the disposal site. A geospatial database generated from remotely sensed satellite data could be used to help solve this problem. Efforts should be made to reclaim abandoned landfill sites.

Wednesday, 13 May 2015

Monday, 11 May 2015

Role of Remote Sensing and GIS in Livelihood Development – Case Study, Cameroon

Jatropha is a hardy tree that can grow on barren, eroded lands under harsh climatic conditions and is considered resistant to drought. It is a perennial crop and takes six to seven years before it can be harvested. The jatropha tree has a long lifecycle of around 30 to 40 years.
The fruit, foliage and bark contain curacas - a poison to humans and animals, and a possible carcinogen. It is therefore not cultivated as a food crop, but instead for its oil bearing seeds.
The oil content of jatropha is 35 – 40% in the seeds and 50 – 60% in the kernel. The oil contains 21% saturated fatty acids and 79% unsaturated fatty acids. Historically, the oil from the seeds has been used to make soap, the dye from the bark can be used a colorant for cloth and meal is often re-used as an organic fertilizer. Increasingly, jatropha is being considered as a biodiesel feedstock.
Jatropha originated in Mexico and South America. It is now increasingly being planted around the world including in Asia (mainly India, Indonesia, and China) and Africa (mainly Egypt, Malawi, Swaziland and Zambia). It is claimed that India has 11 million hectares of land being cultivated for jatropha for biofuel, and a single fuel company has reported plantings of 95,000 hectares in India, 47,000 hectares in Africa and almost 50,000 hectares in Asia.
It is currently estimated that after the first five years of cultivation the average annual yield per tree is 3.5kg of beans. Approximately 4kg of beans is required to make one litre of biodiesel, so on this basis one hectare should yield around 2.2 to 2.7 tonnes of oil. However on poor grade land the yield may be significantly lower.
Recently advisors to the Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO) have stated it would take five years of intensive research before jatropha could achieve the productivity level that would make its cultivation economically viable. Opinion is split over how long it actually takes before the jatropha tree can be harvested. This is partly due to the fact that there are currently no plantations in full production. Some reports indicate that it can be harvested three years after planting, but others state jatropha plants need four to five years before a full harvest can be achieved. This is a slow cultivation period when compared to annual arable crops, which can be harvested after months rather than years.
The cultivation of jatropha on a large scale is a relatively new development, which has potential implications for the quality of the crop. Unlike cereal crop seeds which are certified according to their performance characteristics; there are currently no certified seeds available for jatropha; with no reliable performance characteristics which means there can be no assurance of the yield. It has been observed that there is great variability in seed production between plants, which has serious implications for current estimates of production. Jatropha is also considered a ‘wild’ plant, and as such it has not yet undergone selection and improvement for agricultural use. Considerable interest has been generated in the potential to grow jatropha on low grade or waste land, which is seen as a benefit because it is thought to actively contribute to restoration of degraded lands, and will not displace food production. However, there are a number of factors that can affect the yield of a crop which will vary according to geographical location. These factors include temperature, climate, and the quality of the soil among others. Initial trials have indicated that yields on poor quality land may be as low as 220 kg oil per hectare. Therefore, despite its potential to grow in harsh climatic conditions it may be more profitable to grow it on prime land. This may drive production away from low quality land.
The UN is concerned that the potential yields of jatropha and similar crops on degraded or waste lands are not yet known. Yields from palm oil are five times higher than those from rapeseed and three times higher than those currently known from jatropha. Indeed, even proponents of jatropha agree that although the crop can do well on land that may not be ideal for food crops, it is likely that with selective breeding, modest amounts of water and fertiliser it will perform well. Currently, there are other biofuel feedstock crops that offer more flexibility as they can be diverted to either food or biofuel production, offering a more secure future for participants in the value chain.
There is growing evidence that jatropha may have a place in arid regions where local employment generation and restoration of degraded land are priorities. However the UN FAO has voiced concern that a rush into jatropha on the basis of unrealistic expectations will not only lead to finanical losses, but also undermine confidence among local rural communities.
Jatropha is a very labour intensive crop which is harvested by hand. It typically requires 200 people per hectare to harvest and as demand grows even more man power will be required to manage its growth. In some parts of the world, for example various African nations, these necessary increases in labour are regarded as a positive social impact on local communities. However, there is concern that jatropha initiatives are being funded and subsidised before mass cultivation of the crop is fully understood. Because of the long harvest cycle, it is difficult for producers to respond to market demand. It is argued that a premature push towards jatropha cultivation on a large scale could lead to unproductive agriculture, which could have widespread implications for local economies and livelihoods of farmers, not to mention profitability for investors. If there are significant yield gains from production on prime land (a likely scenario), production is likely to move to high quality arable land and replace food production. This has implications for food security.
Currently all vegetable oils are transported using the same infrastructure whether for food consumption or fuel. However, because jatropha is poisonous, it would require a completely segregated supply chain. This means that at least in the short to medium term, the supply of jatropha will be limited to local production and esterification processes. This could affect the ability of jatropha to become a mainstream biodiesel feedstock on an international level.
Greenergy and jatropha:
Greenergy does not currently use jatropha oil as a feedstock for biodiesel for a number of reasons:
  • Jatropha oil is not commercially available at present.
  • Complications in the supply chain: Jatropha cannot be transported with edible vegetable oils. This means it would require different ships, tankage, lines and processing facilities.
  • Concerns over current yield projections: There is limited information about the performance of yields and guaranteed supply of jatropha oil on a large scale, making it a high risk investment, particularly given the availability of other feedstocks.
  • Concerns over social impacts: The potential displacement of food crops, lack of flexibility of the crop in changing market conditions and unproven long term production data may have serious implications for local livelihoods and food security.

Jatropha and Wasteland Mangement:
 As it is already being discussed that the jatropha plants can grow in the extreme drought conditions so it will highly be appreciated and logically correct to grow these plants on the wasteland sites. The remotesensing and GIS may play an important role in wasteland site selection and identification. This characteristic of this plant is very vital and important in wasteland reclamations and management. This is not only decrease the pressure on the agriculture land but also increase the probability of proper management of land resources.
Objective and Scope of work:
The objective of work includes
i)              Acquisition of all the necessary inputs & relevant ancillary maps for the Kumbo (Divisional headquarter, BUI) of North West Province of Cameroon. This includes identification and acquisition of satellite images, topographical map sheets, soil/geology maps etc for the study area.
ii)             Creation of detailed databases on natural/physical resources, terrain conditions, climatic conditions, socio-economic status and demography.
iii)            Mapping of physical infrastructure from remote sensing data and through field tracking GPS
iv)           Integration and analysis of the acquired high Resolution data to produce thematic maps using GIS for the Kumbo (BUI) of North West Province of Cameroon.
v)            Field verification and validation of the output of above analysis
vi)           Preparation of layout of all the maps and make print outs for the Grass-field project
vii)          Preparation of report describing the nature and spatial variation of different themes like Land-use/Land-cover, soil, hydro-geomorphology, elevation, slope, aspect, temperature, rainfall and socio-economic profile etc. of the study area. This will also describe problems and peculiarities of the study area, the development possibilities, and the decision rules as developed for the study area.

2.2. Scope of work:

The work shall be carried out in four phases.
Phase 1
Phase 2
Phase 3
Office work
Phase 4
Analysis and Results



The knowledge based classification will be done to analyze various physical parameters, such as digital elevation models, slope, rainfall, land use/land cover, drainage and wasteland. All these factors have an impact on determining which species of Jatropha correlates to specific physical attributes, aiding species-level classification.

Luminous will carry out further analysis by identifying areas which are drought prone or wasteland. GIS analysis will help in identifying the above stated areas.

Drought Prone areas or wasteland will be Jatropha plantation sites, because Jatropha can grow in these severe conditions which are very common in the countries like Cameroon.

Along with natural-resource inventory information, Luminous ETS needed to incorporate socio-economic data at the village level to enable improved planning. By combining such data in a GIS, it was possible to understand an area's socio-economic conditions.

This helped identify target areas for development activities, such as potential areas for establishing jatropha based industries. Such target areas were based on human-resource availability and skill sets as well as distance and probable transportation routes to markets.

A further important use of the GIS was its potential to alleviate the region's chronic problem of power shortages. Jatropha, used in a proper scientific manner, is capable of satisfying energy demands in the region. By using overlay and network analysis in the GIS database, it's possible to determine suitable sites for this industry.

A land-use/land-cover map was developed of a potential target area for the Jatropha livelihood project in Cameroon.

To develop a livelihood in the region, it's important to know what financial assistance is available to support fledgling enterprises. The GIS database was enabled to map any financial institutions operating in the area that could provide development support to the villagers to encourage micro-level economic development.

Monitoring Results:

After the plans had been made and implemented, the key was to monitor results. GIS is used to track and update any changes in socio-economic life at the village level, and this is performed twice a year.

By tracking progress in different areas, it's then possible to make further deductions on the success or failure of specific initiatives based on their location or socio-economic forces. From such information, it's possible to correlate parameters necessary to identify suitable locations for specific activities.

In addition, remote sensing helps track changes on the ground, making it possible to enhance the efficient use of project financing and reduce the misuse of funds.

Sunday, 10 May 2015

Environment Impact Assessment - Remote Sensing

Figure 1. Landsat image of the area around Power Plant

Figure 2. Classified LU/LC around Power Plant

Figure 3. Table showing area of different feature types in different buffer ranges

A power plant company or a Mining Company or a Construction Company

Business Need:
The client wanted to carry out satellite based study using latest satellite data to find out the different LU/LC classes around the power plant set up by the company. Area under different categories was to be estimated for different buffer areas.

Area Covered:
The LU/LC was to be analyzed for 5km, 10km and 20km buffer area around the plant

Inputs Used:
Image type                    - Landsat ETM+
No. of Images               -  1
Resolution                    - 30m
No. of Bands used        -   3

Business Solution:
Land-use\Land-cover was created using latest satellite image. Hybrid classification techniques were used to extract the information.

The data thus generated was analyzed in GIS environment to calculate the area of each feature type with different peripheries, as required by the client.

Project Shipment:
The following shipments were made-
i)              Geo-referenced satellite image in tiff format
ii)            Total LU\LC data in tiff format
iii)            Report showing area of different features types under different buffer regions
iv)           PDF file, with layout for A0 color plot

Software Used:
The following software were used-

Saturday, 9 May 2015

Creation of Land use/Land cover data from Satellite images

There are some pre- developed several processes and algorithm to semi-automate the process of image classification especially to generate Land-use\Land-cover data.  Various tools have been to undertake stringent quality checks to provide a world-class quality data.

The Remote Sensing group has experience in creation of Landuse/Landcover data by various resolutions ranging from 0.61m to as coarse as 250m. The group also provides data in form of digital city models containing information on the height of the buildings and type of land-use\land-cover using single high-resolution images -bidi-font-style:italic'>Land-use\Land-cover data.  Various tools have been to undertake stringent quality checks to provide a world-class quality data

Inputs: Toposheets, Satellite images, Boundary of Study Area, Ancillary Data

Software’s used: ERDAS, ESRI

Output: Land use/ Land cover Classified Data

Sample image and Land use/Land cover classified data shown below

* Classes will be changed according to user requirements

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