Tuesday, 30 April 2013

Image Fusion - Satellite Images Merging




 Pan merges:
Merging of multi-sensor image data has become a widely used procedure because of the complementary nature of various data sets. High spatial resolution is necessary for an accurate description of shapes, features and structures, whereas high spectral resolution is better used for land cover classification. Hence merging of two types of data, to get multi-spectral images with high spatial resolution, is beneficial for various applications like vegetation, land-use, precision farming and urban studies. Various techniques are available for merging of multi-sensor image data. Ideally, the method used to merge data sets with high-spatial resolution and high-spectral resolution should not distort the spectral characteristics of the spectral high spectral resolution data, particularly with respect to digital classification accuracy. These merging techniques will enhance the quality as well as spatial resolution of the data. It will increase the interpretability of the images which will result in better classification.

Possible combinations:


ASTER+PAN merge
ASTER is one of the five state-of-the-art instrument sensor systems on-board Terra a satellite launched in December 1999. It was built by a consortium of Japanese government, industry, and research groups. ASTER monitors cloud cover, glaciers, land temperature, land use, natural disasters, sea ice, snow cover and vegetation patterns at a spatial resolution of 90 to 15 meters. The multispectral images obtained from this sensor have 14 different colors, which allow scientists to interpret wavelengths that cannot be seen by the human eye, such as near infrared, short wave infrared and thermal infrared.

ASTER is the high spatial resolution instrument on Terra that is important for change detection, calibration and/or validation, and land surface studies. ASTER data is expected to contribute to a wide array of global change-related application areas, including vegetation and ecosystem dynamics, hazard monitoring, geology and soils, land surface climatology, hydrology, land cover change, and the generation of digital elevation models (DEMs). Satellite Imaging Corporation (SIC) is an official distributor for ASTER Imagery through USGS.

ASTER Satellite System: Sensor Characteristics:
Launch Date
      18 December 1999 at Vandenberg Air Force Base, California, USA
Equator Crossing
     10:30 AM (north to south)
Orbit
     705 km altitude, sun synchronous
Orbit Inclination
     98.3 degrees from the equator
Orbit Period
     98.88 minutes
Grounding Track Repeat Cycle
     16 days
Resolution
      15 to 90 meters

ASTER high-resolution sensor is capable of producing stereoscopic (three-dimensional) images and detailed terrain height models. Other key features of ASTER are:
  • Multispectral thermal infrared data of high spatial resolution
  • Highest spatial resolution surface spectral reflectance, temperature, and emissivity data within the Terra instrument suite
  • Capability to schedule on-demand data acquisition requests
ASTER has 14 bands of information. For more information, please see the following table

Instrument
VNIR
SWIR
TIR
Bands
1-3
4-9
10-14
Spatial Resolution
15m
30m
90m
Swath Width
60km
60km
60km
Cross Track Pointing
± 318km (± 24 deg)
± 116km (± 8.55 deg)
± 116km (± 8.55 deg)
Quantisation (bits)
8
8
12



LISS-III+PAN
IRS LISS-III data are well suited for agricultural and forestry monitoring tasks. Because of their simultaneous acquisition with IRS PAN data and the availability of a synthetic blue band, LISS-III data are ideal for colouring IRS PAN products.

 



IRS – 1C: Sensor Characteristics:


The Indian Remote Sensing Satellite IRS-1C was successfully launched into polar orbit on December 28, 1995 by a Russian launch vehicle. Its sensors were activated in the first week of January 1996.
IRS-1C
Parameters
PAN
Bands
LISS-III
Spatial Resolution
5.8 m
Band 2 (green)
23 m
Band 3 (red)
23 m
Band 4 (NIR)
23 m
Band 5 (SWIR)
70 m
Swath-width
63 - 70 km
all Bands
127 - 141 km
Spectral Coverage
500 - 750 nm
Band 2 (green)
520-590 nm
Band 3 (red)
620-680 nm
Band 4 (NIR)
770-860 nm
Band 5 (SWIR)
1550-1700 nm

 

IRS – 1D: Sensor Characteristics

 

The Indian Remote Sensing Satellite IRS-1D was successfully launched into polar orbit on September 29, 1997 by a PSLV launch vehicle. Its sensors were activated in the middle of October 1997.

IRS-1D
Parameters
PAN
Bands
LISS-III
Spatial Resolution
5.8 m
Band 2 (green)
23 m
Band 3 (red)
23 m
Band 4 (NIR)
23 m
Band 5 (SWIR)
70 m
Swath-width
63 - 70 km
all Bands
127 - 141 km
Spectral Coverage
500 - 750 nm
Band 2 (green)
520-590 nm
Band 3 (red)
620-680 nm
Band 4 (NIR)
770-860 nm
Band 5 (SWIR)
1550-1700 nm



LISS-IV+PAN
The LISS-IV camera is a high resolution multi-spectral camera operating in three spectral bands (B2, B3, B4). LISS-IV can be operated in either of the two modes. In the multi-spectral mode (Mx),  a swath of 23 Km (selectable out of 70 Km total swath) is covered in  three bands, while in mono mode (Mono), the full swath of 70 Km can be  ... covered in any one single band, which is selectable by ground command (nominal is B3 - Red band). The LISS-IV camera can be tilted up to  +-26 degrees Celsius in the across track direction thereby providing a  revisit period of 5 days.  The Data products are categorized as Standard and have a system level   accuracy.
LISS-IV Standard Products comprise Path/Row Based products, Shift  Along Track product, Georeferenced products and Basic Stereo products. Path/Row Based products are generated based on the referencing scheme of each sensor. Shift Along Track applies to those  products covering a user's area of interest which falls in between two  successive scenes of the same path, then the data can be supplied by  sliding the scene in the along track direction. Georeferenced products are true north oriented products. These products are supplied on digital media only. Basic Stereo products comprise pairs of two images  of the same area, acquired on different dates and from different  angles. One of the parameters from which the quality of a stereo pair can be judged is the base/height (B/H) ratio. B/H ratio is the ratio of distance between two satellite passes and satellite  altitude. Stereo products are available from LISS-IV Mono mode only. The inputs required, in addition to path/row details is B/H  ratio. Two scenes selected on two different dates, satisfying the  user's B/H ratio are supplied as a stereo pair. The data is only radiometrically corrected and are supplied on digital media.



IRS-P6 Resourcesat-1
Parameters
Bands
LISS-IV
LISS-III
Mono Mode
MX Mode
Spatial Resolution
Band 2 (green)
5.8 m
5.8 m
23.5 m
Band 3 (red)
5.8 m
23.5 m
Band 4 (NIR)
5.8 m
23.5 m
Band 5 (SWIR)

23.5 m
Swath-width
all Bands
70 km
23.9 km
140 km
Spectral Coverage
Band 2 (green)
620-680 nm
520-590 nm
520-590 nm
Band 3 (red)
620-680 nm
620-680 nm
Band 4 (NIR)
770-860 nm
770-860 nm
Band 5 (SWIR)

1550-1700 nm
 

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